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Mojor Activities includes Following tasks:-
Maintaining Law and Order
Maintaining law and order in the country, ensuring human rights, guaranteeing the fundamental rights enshrined in the constitution of Nepal and strengthening the democratic polity of the country are the topmost priorities of Government of Nepal.
The Ministry of Home Affairs is committed to ensure security to the people and protect their lives and properties. To ensure social harmony and tranquility, the Ministry is committed to prevent crimes and criminal activities in the society through strengthened law enforcement efforts. Investigation agencies have been made alert not to abrogate human rights during their courses of interrogation and investigation. Effective delivery of the services to the common mass also lies in the priority area of the Government. In this regard, Government of Nepal has made necessary legal and institutional arrangements in accordance with the constitutional provisions which have greatly enhanced the functioning of the service delivery institutions. Similarly, by building up public confidence in the functioning of the Government, thereby enhancing the sense of good governance among the populace, the Ministry is also effortful to bring the general mass closer to the government machineries. It is also seriously bent upon creating an environment conducive to the increment of people's participation in the nation building process.
Controlling the Trafficking of Illicit Goods
Political and financial instability, a feature prevalent in developing countries, has been generally linked with smuggling and trafficking of illicit goods. Realising the negative impact of smuggling and illicit trafficking of goods on the economy, the Government has taken stringent actions against those involved in such activities. The increase in the public revenue in recent time clearly indicates that the controlling measures taken by the Government have been quite positive and effective.
Nepal has been providing asylum on humanitarian grounds to those fleeing their country for noble causes. The flow of Tibetan refugees through the Himalayan border into Nepal started from 1959 A.D. The influx of these refugees into Nepal continued for some years. Their number today is estimated about 15 thousands. Some of them are staying in various camps while some others scattered over 19 different districts of the country. The refugee camps are provided with housing, drinking water facilities, schools, monasteries, cottage-industries etc. The refugees in camps are engaged in carpet-weaving, handicrafts, mobile trade and other business for their livelihood and likelihood.
Each adult refugee is provided with an identity card which is valid for a year. Refugees are required to renew their identity cards every year from the concerned District Administration Offices. These refugees are also provided with travel permit to facilitate travel outside the country. Notwithstanding the stiff Himalayan border between Nepal and China, sporadic flow of the people from Tibet to Nepal has been observed even at present.
Refugees from Bhutan entering into Nepal began in 1990s, with a peak in their influx during the first half of 1992 reached up to 1,000 persons a day crossed the border. A group of 60 Bhutanese asylum seekers, however, were recorded on 12 December 1990 for the first time. In July 1993 there were over 84 thousand Bhutanese refugees in eastern Nepal. The rate of new arrivals from Bhutan has steadily decreased since then, with the introduction of Government of Nepal's screening centre in Kakarvitta on the border between Nepal and India. New arrivals in the Bhutanese refugee camps have dropped to insignificant numbers since 1996 while a natural increase has taken place in the camp population owing to an average growth rate of two percent. Refugee coordination Unit (RCU). Jhapa has registered a total number of 1,06,868 refugees as of the record of 31 May 2006 languishing in the seven camps in Jhapa and Morang districts of eastern Nepal.
The presence of a very large number of Bhutanese created an enormous problem for Nepal rather than on India, with which Bhutan shares its southern borders. Nepal shares no common frontier with Bhutan. Nepal therefore feels that the problem has rather been imposed upon her. As the situation worsened after a year of refugee influx, Government of Nepal requested United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) to extend its support and assistance for the care and maintenance of the refugees. Among the seven refugee camps, one camp is at Sanischare in Morang district and the remaining six are in Jhapa district. Land for the camp-sites has been made available by the government.
A heavy concentration of refugee population has had adverse socio-economic impact on the two eastern districts of Nepal where the refugees have been sheltered. Heavy pressure of the refugees on forest resources has caused deforestation and environmental degradation. Besides problems like price hike, scarcity of food stuffs, alcoholism, social conflicts, epidemics and pollution have been experienced. Similarly maintenance of law and order, peace and security have been threatened by the occurrences of frequent vandalism and violence inside and outside the camps. Assimilation of Bhutanese refugees in the Nepalese society by marriage led to ethnic and cultural problems.
At the central level, the National Unit for the Coordination of Refugee Affairs (NUCRA) in the Ministry of Home Affairs plans, coordinates and monitors the refugee management affairs. At the field level, the Refugee Coordination Unit (RCU) at Chandragarhi, Jhapa under the Ministry works as an operational and implementing agency. A refugee Screening Center established in Kakarbhitta, Jhapa through the joint efforts of the Ministry of Home Affairs and UNHCR on May 12, 1993 A.D. works as a screening post to register incoming refugees.
In order to ascertain the status of Bhutanese refugees, the Ministry of Home Affairs has launched a program for registration. Out of the total registered refugees, 84.65% possess Bhutanese citizenship certificates, 10.05% land ownership documents, 2.95% school certificates, marriage certificates, court and service documents of Bhutanese Government, while only 2.35% do not seem to have evidences (it is alleged that their documents were seized by the Bhutanese authority).
From the very beginning Nepal has taken a consistent stand on the problem of the Bhutanese refugees. Nepal wants safe and voluntary repatriation of all the Bhutanese refugees to their homeland with dignity and honour. Nepal has made clear that the refugee problem is not a problem between Nepal and Bhutan but a problem of the government and people of Bhutan. Nepal respects the Bhutanese sovereignty and territorial integrity and will not interfere in the internal affairs of later. Nepal is determined to find a amicable solution to this problem preferably through bilateral talks between Nepal and Bhutan. To ensure repatriation of Bhutanese refugees to their homeland safely and with honour, the latest effort being made by Nepal and Bhutan is the establishment of a Joint Verification Team (JVT) since 26 March 2001. The main objective of the JVT is to identify and the classify the refugees so as to expedite and enable them for the safe and voluntary repatriation to their home land. JVT has already completed verification and categorization of Khudunabari refugee camp. Unfortunately, the process of repatriation has been held up due to the unprecedent return of Bhutanese team in December 2003.
Managing Natural Disasters
Nepal is a disaster prone country exposed to the various types of natural disasters mainly due to her rugged, steep, rural and remote topography and fragile geological conditions. The country falls under the seismically active zone and has suffered intolerable devastation of earthquakes in the past. Disasters like floods, landslides, fire, windstorm, hailstorm, lightening, epidemics, glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF), avalanche and so on occur from time to time causing enormous physical damages and human life losses. Majority of the people are poor, fatalistic, illiterate and ignorant having little capacity to combat with such catastrophe.
The Ministry of Home Affairs is the apex body in relation to disaster management in Nepal which formulates and implements national policies, plans and programs in this context. The Ministry is responsible to provide rescue and relief materials to the disaster victims. The function of data collection and dissemination, collection and distribution of funds and resources are also the vital functions of the Ministry of Home Affairs. A Central Disaster Relief Committee under the chairmanship of the Home Minister, provides policy guidelines and directives to the operating agencies for rescue and relief works. Being the focal point, the Ministry of Home Affairs has the responsibilities to coordinate the activities relating to disaster preparedness, mitigation and reconstruction as well as rehabilitation with other disaster management related agencies.
After the devastating floods and landslides disaster of 1993 A.D. July in which 1537 people lost their lives and 85,451 families were affected Government of Nepal has been quite serious in the management of natural calamities in the country. Therefore, a National Action Plan on disaster management approved by the Government has been helpful in providing guidelines to prepare plan and programmes for the various sectoral ministries in the field of Disaster Management. Paucity of resources has however, posed a real constraint for the realization of the programmes enumerated in the plans.
The Ministry carries out various types of public awareness raising training programme on disaster management. The department sends informative messages through mass media so as to make the people aware of the natural disasters. The department has central database system and it publishes annual report, maps, booklets, pamphlets and posters for information dissemination.
At the central level National Coordinating Committee for drug abuse control chaired by the Home Minister is the highest body which is responsible for the overall formulation of national policy matters in the areas of drug abuse control and law enforcement. Under this, the Executive Committee for drug abuse control has the overall administrative responsibility for the implementation of the approved policy and programmes. The Chief Narcotic Drug Control Officer heads this committee . A separate Drug Law Enforcement Unit has been set up at the Centre as per the provision made in the Master Plan for Drug Abuse Control for the effective control of illicit drug trafficking. This unit has been empowered to investigate and prosecute the drug offenders. The Chief District Officer discharges the duties of Drug Control Officer in 75 districts of the country. The extension of drug enforcement section with trained manpower at the Regional Police Offices has been completed. The other agencies involved in the control of drug trafficking are the customs, immigration and postal services.
In addition to the above, a project office has been established in order to implement the sectoral plans for treatment, rehabilitation and other demand reduction activities as envisaged in the Master Plan for Drug Abuse Control. Considering the fact that NGOs can play an active role in raising public awareness against drug abuse and other related activities, the Government has been supporting and encouraging these organizations by providing financial and other logistics support. Besides, publication of leaflets and posters, talk programme, essay and poster competitions among secondary school students of the five development regions, distributions of stickers etc. are being carried out by the NGOs with the financial support of Government of Nepal. Efforts are also being made to treat the addicts in some hospitals and treatment centres run by the NGOs.
Community Recovery Centre has been successfully extending free counseling services to the addicts in the community who have undergone treatment in the hospitals, treatment centers and jails.
Nepal has declared 1998 A.D. as the Visit Nepal Year, the target being to attract 500 thousand tourists in this country this year. Foreigners can enter Nepal or exit out of the country from Tribhuwan International Airport, Kathmandu, Kakarvitta (Jhapa), Birgunj (Parsa), Kodari (Northern Border, Sindhupalchok), Belahiya (Rupandehi), Jamunaha, Nepalgunj (Banke), Mohana, Dhangadhi (Kailali) and Gadda Chauki, Mahendranagar (Kanchanpur). A visa is necessary to enter Nepal and it can be obtained from the Nepalese Embassy or consulate or at the entry points in the country. Tourist visa is available for a period of 120 days with an additional 30 days which can be granted on reasonable grounds from the Department of Immigration on the approval of the Home Ministry. A transit visa is available on the presentation of confirmed air ticket from the Airport Immigration Office.
Tourists who want to trek inside Nepal can organise their programmes in groups or individually for which they need trekking permit from the Department of Immigration . Trekkers visiting some of the areas lacking facilities for the tourists and environmentally and ecologically fragile will be given permits only in groups through the recognized Nepalese trekking agencies.
Disseminating the Information
A Communication Cell has been set up at the Ministry. The main function of the Cell is to process and provide information through the internet and the media. The Cell may utilize the services of the journalists engaged in the private sector communication.